Every new expansion usually brings alot of new content. CCP lets players use EVE API to access the servers for information, but to make full use of it, sometimes you need more data: item types, descriptions, maps or ship images. This data is called "Static data dump" and is usually released by CCP a few days after the patch was deployed to Tranquility.
EVE Static Data Export
Official Data Dumps
You can download the official SQL Server data dump directly from EVE Online website.
Static data consists of several files: one is the database dump in SQL Server backup format. The other files are packages with images and icons. Note: Static Data for Rubicon 1.0 and later is in SQL Server 2012 format. You can use free SQL Server 2012 Express to restore it and access the data.
Currently one of the quickest third party devs to convert new SDEs is @Fuzzysteve. You can find his EVE SDE conversions here. Another player named Jercy Fravowitz is usually providing a MySQL conversion (download here), which can be directly imported to a new or exisitng MySQL database. This format is the best choice for PHP based websites. For standalone programs the preferred format is probably SQLite.
Another player Chruker, maintains a website with similar conversions.
DUST 514 Static Data Export
On December 10th CCP FoxFour deployed first ever DUST Static Data Export (original post is here). The original database is in SQLite instead of MS SQL, which makes it much easier to use. @Fuzzysteve converted it to MySQL and PostgreSQL - DUST514 MySQL and PostgreSQL conversions.